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Weathering and Erosion

Read each statement below.  If the statement is true, write T in the space provided.  If the statement is false, write F in the space provided.

___1.  Joints are often formed when the pressure on rock decreases.

___2. Rocks weather most rapidly in a hot, dry climate.

___3. Tropical soils generally make good farmland.

___4. Steep slopes are often too dry to support plant growth.

___5. Transported soils usually have three distinct horizons.

___6. Galvanizing is a process used to inhibit rusting.

___7. The C horizon in a residual soil consists of partially weathered bedrock.

___8. Mudflows occur most often on plains and peneplains.

___9.  The most rapid and sudden type of downslope mass movement is known as creep.

__10.  Oxidation often produces a reddish soil.

Choose the one best response.  Write the letter of that choice in the space provided.

____11.  Which of the following is a type of mechanical weathering?

a. oxidation      b. hydrolysis    c.carbonation    d. ice wedging

____12. Which of the following generally weathers most rapidly?

a. limestone    b. obsidian    c. granite    d.gneiss

____13.  Which of the following mierals is most resistant to weathering?

a. calcite    b. feldspar    c. sandstone    d.quartz

____14.  Glaciers weather surface rocks mainly through the process of :

            a.oxidation        b.carbonation

            c. abrasion        d. decomposition

___15.  Which of the following soil types has the smallest particle size?

        a. silt    b.sand    c.clay    gravel

___16. Which of the following is a type of accelerated erosion?

    a. leaching    b.terracing    c.gullying    d.wedging

___17.  Humus is made up mainly of:

    a. weathered rock fragments    b. organic material

    c. unjointed bedrock                d. iron particles

___18.  Which of the following rocks is most likely to weather quickly?

    a. an exposed rock on a plain        b. an exposed rock on a slope

    c. a buried rock on a plain            d. a buried rock on a slope

19.  Which type of mechanical weathering occurs when water seeps into cracks in a rock and freezes?__________

20.  What common mineral in limestone is most easily weathered by carbonation?_________________________

21. In what type of decomposition reaction do hydrogen ions from water displace elements in a mineral?_____________________________________________________________________

22.  What is the name for a soil containing iron and aluminum minerals that do not dissolve easily in water?________________________________________________

23.  What is the name of the process by which the products of weathering are transported?________________________________________________

24.  Which type of accelerated erosion occurs when high winds or the removal of cover plants causes parallel layers of topsoil to be stripped away?_______________________________________________

25.  Which type of mass movement occurs when a large block of soil and rock slides downhill along a curved slope due to gravity?________________________________________________


26. What is the correct term for a knob of rock that rises up from a peneplain?_________________________

27. What type of mechanical weathering is commonly caused by wind-carried sand?_______________________

28. What is the name for the landform that is created when a plateau is dissected into smaller tablelike areas?_____________________

29.  How can youthful mountains be distinguished from mature mountains?


30.  What are pedocal soils, and under what circumstances do they form?


31.  How would a soil formed from a feldspar-rich rock differ from a soil formed form a quartz-rich rock?


32. Describe three farming methods that are used to reduce the erosion of farmland.


33. How is a desert soil similar to an arctic soil?